Geopolitically, a trip to Iran could not come at a better time. Iran is an emerging power seeking to exploit the vacuum created by the departure of U.S. troops from Iraq, which is scheduled to conclude in a little more than three months. Tehran also plays a major role along its eastern border, where Washington is seeking a political settlement with the Taliban to facilitate a U.S. withdrawal from Afghanistan.
The Islamic republic simultaneously is trying to steer popular unrest in the Arab world in its favor. That unrest in turn has significant implications for the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, an issue in which Iran has successfully inserted itself over the years. The question of the U.S.-Iranian relationship also looms — does accommodation or confrontation lie ahead? At the same time, the Iranian state — a unique hybrid of Shiite theocracy and Western republicanism — is experiencing intense domestic power struggles.
This is the geopolitical context in which I arrived at Imam Khomeini International airport late Sept. 16. Along with several hundred foreign guests, I had been invited to attend a Sept. 17-18 event dubbed the “Islamic Awakening” conference, organized by the office of Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei. Given the state of Iranian-Western ties and my position as a senior analyst with a leading U.S.-based private intelligence company, the invitation came as surprise.
With some justification, Tehran views foreign visitors as potential spies working to undermine Iranian national security. The case of the American hikers jailed in Iran (two of whom were released the day of my return to Canada) provided a sobering example of tourism devolving into accusations of espionage.
Fortunately for me, STRATFOR had not been placed on the list of some 60 Western organizations (mostly American and British think tanks and civil society groups) banned as seditious in early 2010 following the failed Green Movement uprising. Still, the Iranian regime is well aware of our views on Iranian geopolitics.
In addition to my concerns about how Iranian authorities would view me, I also worried about how attending a state-sponsored event designed to further Iranian geopolitical interests where many speakers heavily criticized the United States and Israel would look in the West. In the end, I set my trepidations aside and opted for the trip.
Geopolitical Observations in Tehran
STRATFOR CEO and founder George Friedman has written of geopolitical journeys, of how people from diverse national backgrounds visiting other countries see places in very different ways. In my case, my Pakistani heritage, American upbringing, Muslim religious identity and Canadian nationality allowed me to navigate a milieu of both locals and some 700 delegates of various Arab and Muslim backgrounds. But the key was in the way STRATFOR trains its analysts to avoid the pitfall that many succumb to — the blurring of what is really happening with what we may want to see happen.
The foreigner arriving in Iran immediately notices that despite 30 years of increasingly severe sanctions, the infrastructure and systems in the Islamic republic appear fairly solid. As a developing country and an international pariah, one would expect infrastructure along the lines of North Korea or Cuba. But Iran’s construction, transportation and communications infrastructure shares more in common with apartheid-era South Africa, and was largely developed indigenously.
Also notable was the absence of any visible evidence of a police state. Considering the state’s enormous security establishment and the recent unrest surrounding the Green Movement, I expected to see droves of elite security forces. I especially expected this in the northern districts of the capital, where the more Westernized segment of society lives and where I spent a good bit of time walking and sitting in cafes.
Granted, I didn’t stay for long and was only able to see a few areas of the city to be able to tell, but the only public display of opposition to the regime was “Death to Khamenei” graffiti scribbled in small letters on a few phone booths on Vali-e-Asr Avenue in the Saadabad area. I saw no sign of Basij or Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps personnel patrolling the streets, only the kind of police presence one will find in many countries.
This normal security arrangement gave support to STRATFOR’s view from the very beginning that the unrest in 2009 was not something the regime couldn’t contain. As we wrote then and I was able to see firsthand last week, Iran has enough people who — contrary to conventional wisdom — support the regime, or at the very least do not seek its downfall even if they disagree with its policies.
I saw another sign of support for the Islamic republic a day after the conference ended, when the organizers arranged a tour of the mausoleum of the republic’s founder, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. We visited the large complex off a main highway on the southern end of town on a weekday; even so, numerous people had come to the shrine to pay their respects — several with tears in their eyes as they prayed at the tomb.
Obviously, the intensity of religious feelings varies in Iran, but a significant stratum of the public remains deeply religious and still believes in the national narrative of the revolutionary republic. This fact does not get enough attention in the Western media and discourse, clouding foreigners’ understanding of Iran and leading to misperceptions of an autocratic clergy clinging to power only by virtue of a massive security apparatus.
In the same vein, I had expected to see stricter enforcement of religious attire on women in public after the suppression of the Green Movement. Instead, I saw a light-handed approach on the issue. Women obeyed the requirement to cover everything but their hands and faces in a variety of ways. Some women wore the traditional black chador. Others wore long shirts and pants and scarves covering their heads. Still others were dressed in Western attire save a scarf over their head, which was covering very little of their hair.
The dress code has become a political issue in Iran, especially in recent months in the context of the struggle between conservative factions. President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, who has encountered growing opposition from both pragmatic and ultraconservative forces, has come under criticism from clerics and others for alleged moral laxity when it comes to female dress codes. Even so, the supreme leader has not moved to challenge Ahmadinejad on this point.
Ahmadinejad and the Clerical-Political Divide
In sharp contrast with his first term, Ahmadinejad — the most ambitious and assertive president since the founding of the Islamic republic in 1979 — has been trying to position himself as the pragmatist in his second term while his opponents come out looking like hard-liners. In recent months his statements have become less religiously informed, though they have retained their nationalist and radical anti-Western tone.
For example, his speech at the conclusion of the second day of the conference on the theme of the event, Islamic Awakening, was articulated in non-religious language. This stood in sharp contrast to almost every other speaker. Ahmadinejad spoke of recent Arab unrest in terms of a struggle for freedom, justice and emancipation for oppressed peoples, while his criticism of the United States and Israel was couched in terms of how the two countries’ policies were detrimental to global peace as opposed to the raw ideological vitriol that we have seen in the not too distant past.
But while Iran’s intra-elite political struggles complicate domestic and foreign policymaking, they are not about to bring down the Islamic republic — at least not anytime soon. In the longer term, the issue at the heart of all disputes — that of shared governance by clerics and politicians — does pose a significant challenge to the regime. This tension has existed throughout the nearly 32-year history of the Islamic republic, and it will continue to be an issue into the foreseeable future as Iran focuses heavily on the foreign policy front.
Iran’s Regional Ambitions
In fact, the conference was all about Iran’s foreign policy ambitions to assume intellectual and geopolitical leadership of the unrest in the Arab world. Iran is well aware that it is in competition with Turkey over leadership for the Middle East and that Ankara is in a far better position than Iran economically, diplomatically and religiously as a Sunni power. Nevertheless, Iran is trying to position itself as the champion of the Arab masses who have risen up in opposition to autocratic regimes. The Iranian view is that Turkey cannot lead the region while remaining aligned with Washington and that Saudi Arabia’s lack of enthusiasm for the uprisings works in Tehran’s favor.
The sheer number of Iranian officials who are bilingual (fluent in Persian and Arabic) highlights the efforts of Tehran to overcome the ethno-linguistic geopolitical constraints it faces as a Persian country trying to operate in a region where most Muslim countries are Arab. While its radical anti-U.S. and anti-Israeli position has allowed it to circumvent the ethnic factor and attract support in the Arab and Muslim worlds, its Shiite sectarian character has allowed its opponents in Riyadh and elsewhere to restrict Iranian regional influence. In fact, Saudi Arabia remains a major bulwark against Iranian attempts expand its influence across the Persian Gulf and into Arabian Peninsula, as has been clear by the success that the Saudis have had in containing the largely Shiite uprising in Bahrain against the country’s Sunni monarchy.
Even so, Iran has developed some close relations across the sectarian divide, something obvious from the foreign participants invited to the conference. Thus in addition to the many Shiite leaders from Lebanon and Iraq and other parts of the Islamic world, the guest list included deputy Hamas leader Mousa Abu Marzook; Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ) chief Ramadan Abdullah Shallah; a number of Egyptian religious, political, intellectual and business notables; the chief adviser to Sudanese President Omar al Bashir as well as the leader of the country’s main opposition party, Sadiq al-Mahdi; a number of Sunni Islamist leaders from Pakistan and Afghanistan, including former Afghan President Burhanuddin Rabbani whom I had the opportunity of speaking with only two days before he was assassinated in Kabul; and the head of Malaysia’s main Islamist group, PAS, which runs governments in a few states — just to name a few.
Tehran has had much less success in breaching the ideological chasm, something evidenced by the dearth of secular political actors at the conference. Its very name, Islamic Awakening, was hardly welcoming to secularists. It also did not accurately reflect the nature of the popular agitation in the Arab countries, which is not being led by forces that seek revival of religion. The Middle East could be described as experiencing a political awakening, but not a religious awakening given that Islamist forces are latecomers to the cause.
A number of my hosts asked me what I thought of the conference, prompting me to address this conceptual discrepancy. I told them that the name Islamic Awakening only made sense if one was referring the Islamic world, but that even this interpretation was flawed as the current unrest has been limited to Arab countries.
While speaker after speaker pressed for unity among Muslim countries and groups in the cause of revival and the need to support the Arab masses in their struggle against autocracy, one unmistakable tension was clear. This had to do with Syria, the only state in the Arab world allied with Iran. A number of speakers and members of the audience tried to criticize the Syrian regime’s efforts to crush popular dissent, but the discomfort this caused was plain. Syria has proven embarrassing for Iran and even groups like Hezbollah, Hamas and PIJ, which are having a hard time reconciling their support for the Arab unrest on one hand and supporting the Syrian regime against its dissidents on the other.
The Road Ahead
Attending this conference allowed me to meet and observe many top Iranian civil and military officials and the heads of Arab and other Muslim non-state actors with varying degree of relationships with Tehran. Analyzing them from a distance one tends to dismiss their ideology and statements as rhetoric and propaganda. Some of what they say is rhetoric, but beneath the rhetoric are also convictions.
We in the West often expect Iran to succumb to international pressure, seek rehabilitation in the international community and one day become friendly with the West. We often talk of a U.S.-Iranian rapprochement, but at a strategic level, the Iranian leadership has other plans.
While Iran would like normalized relations with Washington and the West, it is much more interested in maintaining its independence in foreign policy matters, not unlike China’s experience since establishing relations with the United States. As one Iranian official told me at the conference, when Iran re-establishes ties with the United States, it doesn’t want to behave like Saudi Arabia or to mimic Turkey under the Justice and Development Party.
Whether or not Iran will achieve its goals and to what extent remains unclear. The combination of geography, demography and resources means Iran will remain at the center of an intense geopolitical struggle, and I hope for further opportunities to observe these developments firsthand.
Iran at a Crossroads is republished with permission of STRATFOR.
- Hard Facts: The World Is Getting Better
- United Nations Can't Save the Oppressed, But It Can Give Them a Voice
- Obama's International Outsourcing
- Radical Islamist Cleric Anwar al-Awlaki Killed in Yemen
- Anwar Al-Awlaki's Death Major Victory For Counter-Terrorism
- United States Gaze Turns to Uzbeks
- Fiscal Union for the Euro: Some Lessons from History
- German Parliament Approves Hike in EU Loan Guarantees
- Preparing for Greece's Failure
- Despite Austerity Measures Greece Will Still Miss EU Budget Cut Targets
- Greece Working to Convince EU it Can Meet Austerity Demands
- Greek Parliament Approves New Property Tax
- Greeks to Face Further Tough Measures
- Albania's Unsettled Past
- Balkans Summit Extols Regional Co-Operation
- Erdogan Pushes for Common Future with Balkan States
- Turkey's Sinking Lira Defies Soaring Economy
- Kukan: Dialogue Not Barricades
- Arab Spring Turkish Harvest
- Iran at a Crossroads
- Iran's Support of Syria Is Backfiring
- The Mottled Relationship: Iran and Latin America
- Is It a Mistake to Draw Solace From Iran's Long Bomb Gestation Period?
- Arab Spring Added Pressures to Middle East Peace Process
- Israel Accepts Quartet Proposal to Resume Peace Talks
- Blocking Palestinian Statehood
- The Occupation That Time Forgot
- Israeli Parliamentarians Call for Annexation of West Bank
- U.S. Congress: Standard Bearer for Israeli Expansion
- Michele Bachmann 'Blames' Obama for Arab Spring
- Saudis Tussle Over Textbook
- Saudi Arabia Grants Women Limited Right to Vote
- Egypt Eyes New Arms Suppliers
- Saleh Return Deepens Crisis In Yemen
- Other Leaders Should Copy Brazil's Anti-graft Measures
- Obama's U.N. Omission: The War Next Door
- The Drug War Spreads the Bloodbath South
- Mexican Cartels and Pan American Games: A Threat Assessment
- Mexico: Death by Social Media
- Big Agriculture's Latin American Exploits
- Is Free Trade Good for Colombia
- China in Search of Energy Security
- Cuba's Domestic Reforms Surge Past Immobilized United States
- Fears Over Environmental Affects Prompt Court To Halt Mega-Dam Project
- Bolivian Workers Strike to Protest Controversial Highway
- Afghanistan is Obama's Gordian Knot
- Why Are Pakistan's Militant Groups Splintering?
- Questions Raised About Haqqani Network Ties with Pakistan
- Russia Strives to Clarify Vision for Central Asian Alliance
- Azerbaijan Faces Difficult Choice Between Turkey and Israel
- Azerbaijan Wrestles with Iranian Predicament
- In Post-Soviet Central Asia Russian Takes Back Seat
- Stabilizing Congo
- The Balkanization of Somalia
- Refugees Still Vulnerable in Southern Kordofan
- Al Shabaab Attacks Kill 16 at Key Somali Border Town
- Is Africa New Breeding Place for Terrorism?
- Somali Media Press on with Work Despite Deadly Challenges
- China-Indian Trade: Smoothening the Rough Edges
- The Survival of North Korea
- The 'Orchid Revolution' in Singapore
- Counterinsurgency and 'Op Sadhbhavana' in Jammu and Kashmir
- Indian Foreign Policy in Search of a Balance
- Philippines Struggles After Two Typhoons
- Typhoon Nesat Death Toll Rises to 20
- Obama's Dilemma: Foreign Policy and Electoral Realities
- The Theology of Armageddon
- Why Al-Qaeda Won
- Anti-Globalization Movement Endures
- WikiLeaks: The Game Changer
- Israel's Truths and Omissions on Vote for Palestine State
- How to Save Israel and the United States from Themselves
- Obama's Middle East Dilemma
- Palestinian Leader: Obama Wrong to Take Israel's Side
- Israeli Settlers: Never Shy About Taking Law Into Own Hands
- Israel: The Cost of Arrogance
- For Israeli Tycoons: New Strings Attached
- Israeli Innovation on Display
- Saudis to United States: You're Sleeping on the Couch Tonight
- Over 5,000 Killings In Syria Since March
- Iran Arrests Six for Supplying Information to BBC
- Iran: Naval-Gazing More Political Than Military
- Oman Assisting United States to Release Hikers in Iran
- Al-Jazeera: You're Not Alone
- Controversial Comeback For Egypt's Emergency Laws
- Turkish PM Erdogan Encounters Two Egypts on Historic Visit
- Turkey: Violence Casts Pall Over Constitutional Reform Efforts
- Turkey: How Much of a Safe Haven for Political Dissidents?
- Turkey's Neo-Ottoman Foreign Policy
- Libya to Have a New Government within 7-10 Days
- Libya Could Break Up Like Somalia
- Libya and the Bully Problem
- The Difficult Bit: The Arab Spring After Libya
- Middle East and North Africa Face Shortfall of Affordable Homes
- Lean Season Awaits Migrants Escaping Libya
- Kenya: NCDs and HIV Fight for Limited Resources
- Kenya: Thousands of Children to be Immunized Amid Polio Outbreak
- Horn of Africa Migrants Beaten, Deported, Imprisoned
- Rights Groups Report on Somalia Downplayed
- Congo Refugees Unwilling to Return Home
- The New Scramble for Africa
- Japan's PM Must Quell China's Fears About His Nationalism
- Fukushima Evacuees Slam Compensation Requirements
- Nuclear Data Feared Stolen in Hacks of Japanese Sites
- Second Lovers' Shooting Hits Largest Philippine Mall Operator
- Aquino Off to U.S. for Open Government Partnership Launch
- Aquino Orders Imprisonment of Former Philippine Military Comptroller
- Timeline of Australian Asylum-Seeker Debate
- Australia's Military Capabilities Up in the Air
- Islamist Rampage Blamed in Bangladesh Riots
- United States to Help Bangladesh Combat Bird Flu
- Indian Earthquake Prompts 'Wake-Up Call'
- Germany and the US: Toward a 'Special Relationship'?
- Britain - Russia: Beyond Politics
- Central Banks Lend Dollars to European Banks
- Eurozone Pushes Greece to Speed Up Economic Reforms
- S&P Downgrades Italy's Debt Rating
- Libyan Relationship With Italy Expected to Survive Regime Change
- UK Official Favors More Worker Say on Boardroom Pay
- London Court Charges UBS Trader With Fraud
- Denmark Elects First Woman Prime Minister
- Serbia's Markovic Fights Corruption and Public Skepticism
- Kosovo to Boost Privatizations
- Italy and Greece Ask Albania to Unify on European Agenda
- State Department Answers For Congressman's Criticism Of Mexico Policy
- Central American Migrants in Mexico
- Mexico Shock: Gunmen Dispose of 35 Bodies in Two Trucks
- Chevron Charged $18 Billion in Reparations to Ecuador
- Evolution of a Pakistani Militant Network
- Afghanistan: Rabbani Assassination May Peel Tajiks Away from Kabul
- Rabbani Assassination: An Assertive Taliban and America's Dilemmas
- Light at End of Afghan Tunnel Recedes
- Karachi's Long Summer of Violence
- Germany: The Beleaguered European Island
- Greece Unveils New Measures to Prevent Default
- Merkel: Europe Must Avoid 'Uncontrolled' Greek Default
- Kosovo an Obstacle to Serbia's EU Bid
- The Eurozone Debt Crisis: Why the IMF Proposal is Flawed
- Italy: An Economy in Denial
- Should We Break Up Britain's Banks?
- Innovation and Foreign Ownership: New Evidence from Spain
- The Crisis of Europe and European Nationalism
- The South China Sea Conundrum
- Is China Heading for Collapse
- China Forced to Temper Mercenary Approach to International Trade
- China Looking To Middle East For More Oil
- China's Wealthiest Unfazed by Global Turmoil
- Latin America's Blind Love With China May Be Over
- Drug War Madness
- Brazil's Really Big Problem
- Ex-Border Security Chief Calls Fence a Dumb Idea
- Argentina: Funding for a Cause
- Syrian Rights Activist Said Attacked in Prison
- Qatar Moves to Reach Food Sustainability
- Israel - Turkey Tensions Here to Stay Diplomat Warns
- Iran Vows Retaliation in Case of Any 'Preventive Attack'
- Iran Has Much to Lose if Syria's Assad Falls
- Saudis: 'We're Killing Too Many Civilians in Yemen? Then Give Us Drones'
- 100 Hamas Members Arrested Just Before UN Vote for Palestinian Statehood
- West Bank Economy Slows as Aid Drops and Statehood Jitters Grow
- For Hamas Silence on Palestinian Statehood Is Golden
- Gaddafi Insists He is Still in Libya
- The Iraq War Isn't Over
- Insurgents Take Over Key Somali Border Town
- Government Soldier Kills 10 at Mogadishu Refugee Camp
- Dire Pollution in Ogoniland But Little Action So Far
- Afghanistan: Patchy Progress on Education
- Kashmir Police Question 3 in Delhi Bombing
- Indian Democracy Gets a Wake-Up Call
- India: No Counter-Revolution Please
- Australia - Outsourcing Asia's Refugees: A Fair Trade?
- BC Estimates $2.3 Billion Cost To Revert To Provincial Sales Tax
- 9/11 Anniversary Subdued in Many Areas
- Al-Qaeda Lost the Battle Long Ago
- 10 Years of 9/11 Wars is Enough
- Why Al Qaeda is Unlikely to Execute Another 9/11
- One Thing Steve Jobs Couldn't Change: Our Mortality
- What I Did (and Didn't Do) on My Summer Vacation
- 9/11 in Retrospect: Bush's Grand Strategy, Reconsidered
- War Costs Greater Than Acknowledged and Continuing to Climb
- China, the United States, and Global Order
- Palestine Goes to the UN
- Europe's Palestine Problem
- Turkey-Israel: What's next?
- Turkey's Akyol, An Apostle Of The Third Way
- Will Oil Drown the Arab Spring?
- Al Qaeda's Challenge
- Libya's 'Precarious' Transition Ahead
- 7 Challenges for Post-Qadhafi Libya
- To the Shores of Tripoli
- Victory in Tripoli. Bleakness Elsewhere
- Egypt: The Unbreakable Muslim Brotherhood
- Commanding Democracy in Egypt
- Bahrain Stumbles on Road to Recovery
- Syria's Al-Assad Gets the Picture as Satire Comes to YouTube
- Kurds Unite Amid Onslaught
- Former Israeli Army Chief Says Talk to Hamas
- For Russia New Middle East will be Tough Arms Market
- Arab Spring Still Fails to Deliver on Human Rights
- The Hype and the Reality of China's Economic Rise
- A New Kind of Korea: Building Trust Between Seoul and Pyongyang
- Kim Jong Il's Visit to Russia: Just More Mixed Messages?
- North Korea Accuses South Korea of Plotting to Destroy Its Socialist System
- South Korea Suicide Rate Doubles in 10 Years
- Tokyo's Transformation: How Japan Is Changing
- Credit Suisse Downgrades Forecast for Philippine Economic Growth
- Mexico and the United States: Surgical Strikes in the Drug Wars
- Despite Victory, Argentine Leader Faces Hard Choices
- Chilean 'Model' Is Shaken, but Very Much Alive
- Student Protests May Lead to a Better Chile
- Winds of Change: Uruguay's Sustainable Energy Plans
- Leaving Afghanistan to the Afghans
- Balkan Countries Work To Round Up Privately Held Weapons
- Former Iceland Prime Minister On Trial Over Banking Sector Collapse
- Germany's Rail Set to Run on 100 Percent Renewable Energy
- Divvying up South Sudan
- Somalia Seeks More Troops Against Al-Shabaab
- 20,000 Flee Blue Nile Clashes
- Climate of Fear Ahead of Gambia Presidential Elections
- Hungry Kenyan Families Sending Children Out to Beg
- Somali Border Town Feels the Refugee Pressure
- Cholera Soars in Lake Chad Basin Countries
- Somali Pirates Grow More Daring
- Two Million Hit By Floods in Pakistan's Sindh Province
- Global Health: Meaty Concerns
- Global Health: A Seminal Moment?
- Human Trafficking: The Wound That Shames Our Present
- How New Atrocity-Prevention Steps Can Work
- 9/11 Anniversary: Rethink Needed
- 9/11 Anniversary: From Empire to Decline
- 9/11 Anniversary: Scanning Bodies, Stripping Rights?
- Assassination as Foreign Policy
- Eurozone Manufacturing Slowing
- European Union Spending Cuts and Tax Hikes Hurt GDP Growth
- Who's Worse Off: Europe or the United States?
- Germany: German Tiger or European Growth Engine?
- Greece Forecasts Economic Contraction to be Worse than Expected
- Collateral Deals will Have Negative Impact on Greece
- Spain Announces Temporary Tax Cut to Stimulate New House Sales
- Eastern Mediterranean Olive Oil Producers Seek Markets in Far East
- High North: The New Frontier
- The Politics of the London Riots
- Young Westerners -- Deprived or Decadent?
- Explanations and Excuses for English Riots
- Many British Households See Steeper Rise in Debt
- Young Turks Returning Home to Chase Economic Dreams
- The Pain in Spain
- Multiculturalism and Dutch Political Culture
- Macedonia Eyes Its Future in Antiquity
- The Saudi Counterrevolution
- Libya Threatens to Become Terrorist Arms Depot
- Libya: Protection Challenge For The Opposition
- Libya After Gadhafi: Transitioning from Rebellion to Rule
- Why Are Some Progressives Gloating over Libya?
- Egypt's Reluctant Rulers
- Fear and Blogging in the Arab world
- Middle East: The Future of Women
- Middle East: Bread and Dignity
- Middle East: Palestine Towards Statehood
- Israeli - Arab Crisis Approaching
- The Upcoming Palestinian Uprising
- Israeli Settlements Keep Middle East Unsettled
- Syrian Opposition Tries to Unite
- Assad Rejects International Calls to Resign
- Obama Calls for Syrian President Assad to Step Down
- Cranking up Pressure on Syria
- Violence in Iraq Raises Questions About American Withdrawal
- Egypt's Brotherhood Declares War on the Bikini
- Labor Pains in Saudi Arabia as Hiring Deadline Nears
- Gulf Markets Worry About Oil Outlook
- Jordanian King Promises Reform to Skeptical Public
- China and the United States' Debt
- China's New Aircraft Carrier Bolsters Its Regional Reach
- China Outpaces United States in PC Market
- Moody's Downgrades Japan Credit Rating Over Deficit Concerns
- Kim Jong-Il Pushes China for New Nuclear Talks
- North Korea's Rare Pledge to Abandon Nuclear Activities
- Indonesia: Pluralism vs Vigilantism
- South Sudan: Labor Pains
- Somalia: Pro-government Rally Held in Mogadishu
- Kenya: 'Perfect Storm' Brewing Among Urban Poor
- Latin America's Security Dilemma
- A President-for-Life in Argentina? Not Likely
- There's Hope for Mexico and Central America
- Chile: The Fight to Make Education a Guaranteed Right
- Death of Layton Poses Challenge for NDP Interim Leader
- Global Economic Downturn: A Crisis of Political Economy
- Crisis of Confidence: Debt Debate Erodes US Global Standing
- United States Debt Downgrade Won't Have Much Short-Term Effect on Foreign Policy
- The Empathy Deficit
- Stiglitz Upbeat About China and Latin America
- China Trade Surplus Rises
- China Sees Inflation Rate Hit 6.5%
- Latin America Not Immune to U.S. Debt Deal
- Is Japan Now a Good Bet?
- Is Germany the New Safe Haven?
- Islam and Arab Political Change
- Iran Reshaping Persian Gulf Politics
- Diplomatic Pressure on Al-Assad Gaining Momentum
- Arab Nations Join Call For Al Assad To Stop Civilian Attacks
- Bahrain and Kuwait recall Syria envoys
- Clinton Says Syrian Government has Lost Legitimacy
- September Looms Large in Israeli-Palestinian Conflict
- Israel's Growing Wealth Gap Fuels Economic Anger
- Israel and Cyprus Forging Ahead on Gas Bonanza
- Major Israeli Defense Merger Dropped
- Israel Approves 1,600 Settler Homes in East Jerusalem
- Mini UAV Chopper For Urban Warfare Revealed
- Roman-era Sword Uncovered in Ancient Ditch in Jerusalem
- Hamas: Palestinian Authority is Clamping Down On Our Preachers
- Warnings of 'Somalization' And All Out Civil War in Yemen
- Missing Out on Vital Medicines Because of Economic Crisis
- Jordanians Lash Out Against Planned Nuclear Reactor
- Jordanian Mosque Named After Jesus
- Troop Withdrawal Rests on Decision From Iraq
- Somali Forces and African Union Peacekeepers Gradually Expand Control In Mogadishu
- Somali President: Combat Operations Against Al-Shabaab Will Continue
- Al-Shabab Pullout: The Beginning Of The End in Somalia?
- Africa: Tough Choices As Food Prices Continue To Rise
- Nigeria: Jail Threat for Polio Vaccination Refuseniks
- Congo: Implement Anti-Discrimination Law, Urge Indigenous Peoples
- Congo: High-Tech Measures To Curb Illegal Fishing In Congo
- Raw Sewage Kills in Madagascar
- Tanzania: Violence Against Children Rampant
- Maternal Deaths Quadruple In South Africa
- United States and Pakistan Navigate New Tensions in Fraught Relationship
- Pakistan's Forgotten 2005 Quake Victims Still Need Help
- China Announces Sea Trial Of Its First Aircraft Carrier
- Indonesia's Global Significance
- Seoul Blasts Pyongyang For Fabricating Shelling Incident
- North Korea Planned Assassination of South Korean Defense Minister
- Calls For End To Torture and Extrajudicial Killings By Bangladeshi Police
- Muslim Rebels Seek Substate In Philippines
- DOJ Places Former Philippine President On Immigration Watchlist
- Britain Sticks With Austerity Plan
- Cameron Announces Crackdown On Facemasks
- Norway: The Sky Is Weeping
- Norway Attacks a Tragic Result of Failed Immigration Policies
- Norway: Blaming the Muslims
- Norway: Breivik's Real Enemy: Himself
- Brazil Joins Race for Globalized Students
- OAS Is a Basket Case - but a Needed One
Available at Amazon.com:
Aftermath: Following the Bloodshed of America's Wars in the Muslim World
Displacement and Dispossession in the Modern Middle East (The Contemporary Middle East)
The End of History and the Last Man
The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order
The Tragedy of Great Power Politics
Copyright 2011, iHaveNet.com - All Rights Reserved