"The struggle of man against power is the struggle of memory against forgetting."
As part of the settlement,
neither admitted nor denied wrongdoing -- despite ample evidence that it had engaged in plenty of
wrongdoing. Things like paying off local officials with millions to win no-bid contracts worth billions and convincing county officials to
switch from fixed-rate bonds to bonds hedged with risky derivatives -- a switch that has driven
released a statement that it was "pleased to have reached a settlement with the
So no wrongdoing admitted, and time to move on to the next lucrative money-printing scheme. How tidy. This is what passes for justice on
We saw the same dynamic played out earlier this year in the legal saga surrounding the $3.6 billion in bonuses that was
It appears that Bank of America executives failed to inform their shareholders that, as part of the acquisition, they were going to give billions to the executives who had been at the helm while Merrill lost $27 billion in 2008. Had the shareholders been told, the news would more than likely have put a crimp in the hastily arranged deal.
Many thought the matter was closed back in August when the
Of course, lots of wrong was done in that case, too -- something that was implicit in the bank's willingness to pay the multimillion-dollar fine. Specific people had made very specific decisions surrounding the Merrill Lynch bonuses -- including not informing their shareholders.
But, instead of going after them, regulators went after the company, gave it a minor ding to its bottom line, and were ready to forget the whole thing.
Last year, the total of amount of fines levied by the
It's really not that complicated: if you do the crime, you do the time. But the people who run the show like to make it seem like it is very complicated -- all the better to obscure the simple moral principle of right and wrong. Why should it matter whether you commit your crimes in a fancy boardroom or on the street? If you were reaping the (often enormous) benefits of your crime, why don't you have to admit wrongdoing when you're caught, and pay a commensurate -- not a token -- penalty?
As it happens, there are some heroes out there who have noticed that the ambiguous way our laws are being enforced has diverged from the unambiguous morality the laws are based on.
In the Bank of America
case, the hero is
And Judge Rakoff demanded to know who exactly were the executives who knew about the bonuses and decided not to disclose them. Instead of a faceless company, shouldn't the culpability, Rakoff asked at a hearing, be on "the individuals who were responsible?"
But rather than naming those responsible, Bank of America
claimed it was all the fault of
its lawyers -- an excuse that, shockingly, the
Judge Rakoff wasn't buying it -- he saw the slippery slope that thinking would lead to: "It would seem that all a corporate officer who has produced a false proxy statement need offer by way of defense is that he or she relied on counsel," he said.
Rakoff has a history of actually applying the law. Back in 2003, he rejected a settlement with WorldCom because the fine was too low.
When he first became a judge, prosecution used to focus more on individuals instead of companies. "The feeling then," he said, "was if a crime had been committed, it was important to discover who the persons were who made the wrongful decisions."
Judge Rakoff's display of spine appears to have rubbed off on the
Of course, it's not just our "too big to fail" banks that have been allowed to do wrong without having to admit to any wrongdoing. The pharmaceutical industry and health insurance companies have been doing the "pay the fine but admit nothing" dance for years--- chalking up the millions (and sometimes billions) they have been fined as the cost of doing business.
But with the banking, drug and insurance industries all finding themselves at a crossroads, now is a very good time to revoke the Get Out of Jail Free card those at the helm of these companies have been given for far too long.
We all know that there was a great deal of wrongdoing that led to the near-collapse of our financial system and to our badly broken health care system. The first step to reforming each of them is to acknowledge that wrongdoing -- and to seek the real punishment of the wrongdoers.
Free Markets, Free Muslims
Jon B. Alterman
Vali Nasr's new book, Forces of Fortune, was written largely in the exuberant phase of Dubai's story, but it is being published in a more sober time. It reflects some of the old enthusiasm for the notion that 'the Dubai model' -- a multiethnic, capitalist society insulated from violence and ideology -- could save the Middle East from a downward spiral of intolerance and political extremism.
(c) 2009 Arianna Huffington