65 years and over: 13%
Life expectancy at birth: 66.5 years
Population in 2050: 114.12m
Among many other demographic problems,
This decline has been driven by several factors. Russian women are having fewer babies, with the birthrate declining from the replacement level of 2.1 children per woman in 1989, to a low of 1.2 in 1999, before increasing again to 1.6.
Life expectancy for men fell from an already low level of 64.9 years in 1987 to 57.5 in 1994. The female life expectancy advantage in
All this has resulted in the Russian population falling from a peak of 148.6 million in 1993 to 142.9 million.
Recent attention has focused on
The Russian leadership is aware of the seriousness of these problems and has put forward measures to deal with them.
These include pro-natal policies to increase the birth rate, anti-smoking, antialcohol and other measures to decrease mortality and increase the length of healthy life years, and efforts at better-managed migration.
The Year of the Family was declared in 2008 and a public relations campaign was mounted to encourage larger families. A package of pro-natalist policies was introduced, designed to halt or reverse the steep decline in
These policies had little effect: the fertility rate was already beginning to increase before they were implemented and has risen only slightly since.
Russian men are among the world's largest consumers of alcohol and tobacco. Mortality levels and patterns of death and disease in
Raising the pension age has not received serious consideration in
There has been an increase in the percentage of 'foreign born' in
The Kremlin's migration policy has undergone a number of reversals. Immediately after the break-up of the
- Snowden Leaks Reveal American Trojan Horse in Europe
- European Outrage over Snowden Affair is Laughable
- Can the European Union be Saved?
- More Union in the European Union Doubtful
- Britain Needs to Think Bigger
- Russia: The Kremlin is Not Just a One-Man Band
- Deny Terrorists Their Power
- Scotland: Chasing the Nordic Option after Independence
- Two British Prime Ministers
- Can Culture Heal the Wounds of the Troubles?
- Iceland: Projection of Journalists' Wishes
- A Right and Proper Death of the Euro
- The Acute Jihadist Threat in Europe
- European Union: Caught in the Fertility Trap
- Explaining the Cyprus Shakedown
- How The Baby Boomers Have Betrayed Their Children
- Despite Warning on Violence, Greece won't Ban Golden Dawn
- Greece Expects Record Number of Tourists this Year
- China and Investors Bet on Greece
- Have Greek Markets Turned a Corner?
- France: A Socialist Lawmaker's Fiscal Double Life
- Russia: From Red to Grey
- Russian Gas, European Integration and the Fate of Ukraine
- Poland Still Coping with Dark Past
- Margaret Thatcher: Not a 'Quota Woman'
- Margaret Thatcher: The Lady was a Champ
- Margaret Thatcher: What the 'Iron Lady' Forged
- Nanny-State Freeloaders Celebrate Thatcher's Death
- A European Bailout Unlike Any Other
- Europe's Disturbing Precedent in the Cyprus Bailout
- Balkans: New Extremism Poses Threat
- Greece: Dangers of the Disaffected and Unemployed
- Economists, Greeks Wary of 'No More Austerity'
- The Two Europes
- Eurozone Jobless Rate Hits Record 12 Percent
- Europe, Unemployment and Instability
- Swiss Curb Executive Greed, Will Anyone Follow?
- Czechoslovakia: Revisiting the Velvet Divorce
- Italy's Election: Lighting the Lamp
(c) 2013 Tribune Media Services, Inc., "Russia: From Red to Grey"